- Introduction to Western Philosophy Section Links
Introduction to Western Philosophy Section Links
1) "COURSE BASICS" 6) LOGIC 2) KNOW THYSELF 7) METAPHYSICS 3) EPISTEMOLOGY 4) AESTHETICS 9) DAILY PHILOSOPHICAL QUOTES 5) ETHICS 10) PHILOSOPHICAL SONGS & VIDEOS
- Course Basics- Follow on Twitter @CVHSPhilosophy
Course Basics- Follow on Twitter @CVHSPhilosophy
PARTICIPATION: 25% of your grade will be awarded for fully participating in discussions and activities. This entails being present with the group and not on phones, working on other subjects, or disengaged. There will many class discussions, so if you like class discussions you're in the right place. Every day you'll receive full, partial, or no credit in this area.
WRITING: 25% of your grade will be based upon your 50 reflective journal and related writing assignments. You can either write the journal prompt, or write on the video of the day. If you are absent, consult the Moodle page, watch the end of class videos and complete the writing. This will be compiled in a binder and graded all at once at the end of class. This allows you to reflect and write when you're feeling it.
EXAMS: 25% will be based upon the exams at the end of each unit. These are essay-style and some may be take-home.
FINAL: 25% of your grade will be based on your score on the Final Examination.
- Know Thyself
‘Know Thyself’- This was written on the forecourt of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. Legend tells that the seven sages of ancient Greece, philosophers, statesmen and law-givers who laid the foundation for western culture, gathered in Delphi to inscribed ‘know thyself’ at the entry to its sacred oracle. The adage subsequently became a touch-stone for western philosophers, and extended its reach as the influence of Greek philosophy expanded.
LESSON 3: Logistical Day establishing binders and then optional expression of self stemming from, "Know Thyself" drill.
Epistemology- "The branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge, its presuppositions and foundations, and its extent and validity."
VIEWING OF, "THE TRUMAN SHOW"
Aesthetics- A branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste and with the creation and appreciation of beauty
- hashtags for opening drill.
GUEST SPEAKER: MR. MONAGHAN ON THE AESTHETICS OF PHOTOGRAPHY
- Ethics This topic
Ethics- A set of principles of right conduct, the study of the general nature of morals and of the specific moral choices to be made by a person; rules or standards governing the conduct of a person.
Guest Speaker Nurse Ostheimer on Medical Ethics
Logic- A science that deals with the principles and criteria of validity of inference and demonstration : the science of the formal principles of reasoning.
LESSON 36: END OF CLASS VIDEOS: "In lieu of my video, these are the results of past classes making skits demonstrating 24 logic fallacies".
Metaphysics- The branch of philosophy concerned with the study of the nature of being and beings, existence, time and space, and causality
- Reflective Journal Entries:
Reflective Journal Entries:
- LESSON 1: "What are the five components of philosophy and what are example of how we think from each of the five? What are your initial thoughts about philosophy as we start this class?
LESSON 2: Based upon your reflection and introspective research, Who are you? (Know Thyself)
LESSON 3: NO JOURNAL ENTRY FOR THE LESSON.
LESSON 4: “What are your Soul Profile, Personal Vision, and Mission Statements?”
LESSON 5: Answer the Six Questions of Socrates based off our discussions and your own thoughts.
LESSON 6: “How would you define, “wisdom” and what steps can be taken to increase it during the course of a lifetime? Do you consider yourself wise, or not? Explain.”
LESSON 7: “What modern connections to your life and the world today can be made from the Allegory of the Cave”?
LESSON 8: Find a real world example to each of these biases and then ask yourself, which biases do you have? How does one lessen or eliminate these biases?
LESSON 9: “Recap the significance of these epistemological concepts and write what they say about the nature of knowledge, reality, truth, mind, and meaning.”
LESSON 10: “What are your criteria to what is real, what is the value in evaluating authenticity? What applications does evaluating authenticity have in your everyday life?”
LESSON 11: “Is it conceivable that in the future, there will be computers capable of, “thinking”? If so, what is your definition of thinking? What separates human thought from that of a computer?
LESSON 12: “What criteria do you set for beauty in the world? What are the various areas of life that deal with aesthetics?
LESSON 13: “What constitutes a great work of art? Which piece had the highest level of aesthetics? Which had the lowest? How are you justifying this opinion philosophically?
LESSON 14: Choose one song that sums you up best. Take it through the 8 criterion for aesthetics and prepare to present it to the class, explaining the merits of the song.
LESSON 15: What are your thoughts regarding the five studies on attraction? From your reading, small and large group discussions, what stands out as something you learned? Also......“What do you find most beautiful in a person and now that you know about the golden ratio, do you still believe in the maxim that, “beauty is only skin deep?” What sociological, physiological, psychological, anthropological, and mathematical factors go into human attraction?
Lesson 16: What type of house is the most in line with your aesthetic? Which is the least? Explain your rationale using the criteria given to you in class.
LESSON 17: “Define both the intentional fallacy Wagnerian dilemma. Now give me tangible examples of what they apply to. Finally, how do you feel concepts in relation to the artists you enjoy?”
LESSON 18: Instead of a journal entry, complete the packet of questions that correspond with the film.
LESSON 19: NO JOURNAL ENTRY FOR THE DAY. PREPARE FOR THE EXAMINATION.
LESSON 20: “What is Ethics and how does ethical thinking vary from epistemological and aesthetic thinking? What are some tangible examples of ethics that you see in your everyday life?”
LESSON 21: “What are examples of moral and cultural relativism? Also, are there any absolute standards of right and wrong, if so, how do we identify them?”
LESSON 22: “Provide me a synopsis of the three ethics concepts today (Acts/Omissions Doctrine, Double Effect, and Trolley Problem) and provide examples of how these apply to everyday life”.
- LESSON 23: “Define the various forms of Consequentialist ethics and which of these is most in line with your personal system of ethics? Why do you feel your thinking is the most ethical?”
LESSON 24: “What real life examples have you observed of planned obsolescence, the Peter Principle, and the Hawthorne Effect? What ethical issues emerge from these?”
- LESSON 25: “What list did you compile for both U.S. and World History and what was your rationale behind them?”
LESSON 26: “What rights do animals have? What constitutes ethical treatment toward them? What policies should be in place regarding animal rights?”
LESSON 27: “Based upon your discussions in small and large groups assert your ethical positions on the issues presented.” Also, provide a synopsis of Nurse Ostheimer’s talk”.
LESSON 28: “What are the differences between the philosophies of Locke and Hobbes? Also, what are differences between positive and negative liberty? Provide tangible real-world applications of today’s teachings.”
LESSON 29: “Pretend yourself to be a policy-maker. Choose one political issue and research the most ethical and logical policy. Create a short presentation to give to your classmates and be prepared to answer their critiques and objections.
- LESSON 30: “Submit your criteria of what constitutes a just war and your ethical evaluations of both American and world conflicts from the past”
- LESSON 31: “Is the Free Rider Problem an inevitability is society? What policies can be enacted to mitigate this problem, if any?
LESSON 32: “Which of these two philosophies (Altruism and Rational Self-Interest) are most ethical? Which of the two do you consider yourself more to be? Can you think of situations where one philosophy is more appropriate than the other?
LESSON 33: “How do you feel about the Golden Rule and Reciprocity? What are the positive aspects and flaws of these concepts? Do you feel it provides hope for future world peace or not?” Explain your rationale.
LESSON 34: “What thinking processes were required in order to be successful in both Quarto and Sudoku? What are the differences between inductive and deductive reasoning? Provide examples from real life where both both types of reasoning are used.”
LESSON 35: From the hypothetical examples given, provide examples of when inductive reasoning should be utilized, compared to deductive reasoning.
LESSON 36: “What have you learned during this project and which fallacies are the most common ones that you witness? Where do you see these in real life?” (EXTENDED WRITE)
LESSON 37: What questions and issues emerge from the Prisoner’s Dilemma, The Sorites Paradox and Buridan’s Donkey? What are your thoughts on the philosophical value of each of them?
- LESSON 38: In lieu of a journal entry, I want you to write your graphic organizers and notes, along with your solutions. I get to be a math teacher for a minute and tell you all to, SHOW YOUR WORK!
LESSON 39: Do you feel Occam’s Razor is a logical or illogical concept? What real-life examples is Occam’s Razor applicable, when is it not?
LESSON 40: Define the following terms: Premise, Conclusion, Argument, Syllogism, Induction, Deduction, and Reductio ad Absurdum
LESSON 41: Is religious belief logical or illogical? Explain your rationale based on Pascal’s Wager and the class discussion.
LESSON 42: The Movie Review of Kumare will be done in lieu of journal entries.
LESSON 43: Present philosophical arguments for and against the existence of God. State your personal assertion on the subject and provide the rationale for your beliefs.
LESSON 44: “Provide a synopsis of the 4 views presented today (Hard Determinism, Compatibilism, Hard Indeterminism, and Libertarianism). Also, provide your assertion on how you feel this metaphysical question affects you personally”.
LESSON 45: What types of love are there, according to the Ancient Greeks? Is it possible for a human being to possess all forms of love in the course of a human life? What can you do to ensure that you have healthy forms of these loves and avoid the pitfalls that are inherent in each type?
- LESSON 46: “What is humor, how is humor created?” What do you consider the highest forms of humor, what do you consider the lowest forms?
LESSON 47: “What are the origins of happiness and unhappiness? What is/are your philosophical assertion(s) on happiness?
- LESSON 48: “What perspectives were given today regarding time? How do you feel about the subject now that you’ve learned about it?”
LESSON 49: “What are your thoughts regarding death? Is focusing on death life-affirming, or life-negating? Explain your rationale. Write this in addition to your obituary.
LESSON 50: "Is finding the meaning of life the ultimate goal of philosophy, or not? Which aspects of the varying philosophical schools do you draw from to form your personal meaning?"
KNOW THYSELF: If you have to have one philosophical quote associated with you what would it be? (Can be taken from another philosopher or of your own creation)
- Philosophical Quotes from the Lessons
Philosophical Quotes from the Lessons
LESSON 1: "The unexamined life is not worth living"- Socrates
LESSON 2: "When I discover who I am, I will be free”- Ralph Ellison
LESSON 3: "I want to sing like the birds sing, not worrying about who hears, or what they think"- Rumi
LESSON 4: “Many scientists think that philosophy has no place, so for me it's a sad time because the role of reflection, contemplation, meditation, self- inquiry, insight, intuition, imagination, creativity, free will, is in a way not given any importance, which is the domain of philosophers” –Deepak Chopra
- LESSON 5: "There is one thing I know and that is I know nothing” –Socrates (His explanation to why he was considered the wisest sage in Greece)
- LESSON 6: "Science can give us knowledge, but only philosophy can give us wisdom"- Will Durant
- LESSON 7: “It is the task of the enlightened not only to ascend to learning and to see the good but to be willing to descend again to those prisoners and to share their troubles and their honors, whether they are worth having or not. And this they must do, even with the prospect of death.” – Plato
LESSON 8: “It is an acknowledged fact that we perceive errors in the work of others more readily than in our own.” –Leonardo da Vinci
LESSON 9: “I think, therefore I am” – Rene Descartes and.......
“As if I didn’t remember other occasions when I have been tricked by exactly similar thoughts while asleep! As I think about this more carefully, I realize that there is never any reliable way of distinguishing being awake from being asleep. This discovery makes me feel dizzy, which itself reinforces the notion that I may be asleep!” –Also Rene Descartes
- LESSON 10: "What we achieve inwardly will change outer reality"- Plutarch
LESSON 11: "A computer would deserve to be called intelligent if it could deceive a human into believing that it was human,"- Alan Turing- 1950
LESSON 12: “Art is the imposing of a pattern on experience, and our aesthetic enjoyment is recognition of the pattern.”
― Alfred North Whitehead
LESSON 13: “The purpose of art is washing the dust of daily life off our souls”. - Pablo Picasso
LESSON 14: “The inexpressible depth of music, so easy to understand and yet so inexplicable, is due to the fact that it reproduces all the emotions of our innermost being, but entirely without reality and remote from its pain… Music expresses only the quintessence of life and its events, never these themselves.” -Arthur Schopenhauer
LESSON 15: "Geometry has two great treasures: one is the Theorem of Pythagoras; the other, the division of a line into extreme and mean ratio. The first we may compare to a measure of gold; the second we may name a precious jewel". –Johannes Kepler
- LESSON 16: “A great building must begin with the immeasurable, must go through measurable means when it is being designed, and in the end must be unmeasured.”- Louis Kahn
LESSON 17: My present inclination is to give an answer to the question "What is art?" where this is understood to ask what distinguishes artworks from other things. My answer is that an artwork is an arrangement of conditions intended to be capable of affording an experience with marked aesthetic character—that is, an object in the fashioning of which the intention to enable it to satisfy an aesthetic interest played a significant causal part. –Monroe Beardsley
LESSON 18: “Life has no meaning. Each of us has meaning and we bring it to life. It is a waste to be asking the question when you are the answer.” ― Joseph Campbell
LESSON 19: “The mind of man possesses a sort of creative power on its own; either in representing at pleasure the images of things in the order and manner in which they were received by the senses, or in combining those images in a new manner, and according to a different order. This power is called imagination.” -Edmund Burke
LESSON 20: "These virtues are formed in man by his doing the actions ... The good of man is a working of the soul in the way of excellence in a complete life.” –Aristotle
LESSON 21: "Quod ali cibus est aliis fuat acre venenum" (what is food for one man may be bitter poison to others).- Lucretius
LESSON 22: “These virtues are formed in man by his doing the actions ... The good of man is a working of the soul in the way of excellence in a complete life.” –Aristotle
- LESSON 23: “The greatest happiness of the greatest number is the foundation of morals and legislation." -Jeremy Bentham
LESSON 24: Some animals are cunning and evil-disposed, as the fox; others, as the dog, are fierce, friendly, and fawning. Some are gentle and easily tamed, as the elephant; some are susceptible of shame, and watchful, as the goose. Some are jealous and fond of ornament, as the peacock. - Aristotle
- LESSON 25: "A man without ethics is a wild beast loosed upon this world”. -Albert Camus
LESSON 26: “The assumption that animals are without rights and the illusion that our treatment of them has no moral significance is a positively outrageous example of Western crudity and barbarity. Universal compassion is the only guarantee of morality.” ― Arthur Schopenhauer
- LESSON 27: Whenever a doctor cannot do good, he must be kept from doing harm.- Hippocrates
LESSON 28: “For whatsoever is so tied, or environed, as it cannot move within a certain space, which space is determined by the opposition of some external body, we say it hath not liberty to go further? And so of all living creatures, whilst they are imprisoned, or restrained, with walls, or chains; and of the water whilst it is kept in by banks, or vessels that otherwise would spread itself into a larger space, we use to say, that they are not at liberty, to move in such manner, as without those external impediments they would.” –Thomas Hobbes,
LESSON 29: “The first method for estimating the intelligence of a ruler is to look at the men he has around him.- Niccolo Machiavelli
- LESSON 30: The purpose of all wars, is peace.” -Saint Augustine of Hippo
LESSON 31: Two neighbors may agree to drain a meadow, which they possess in common; because ‘tis easy for them to know each other's mind; and each must perceive, that the immediate consequence of his failing in his part, is, the abandoning the whole project. But ‘tis very difficult, and indeed impossible, that a thousand persons should agree in any such action; it being difficult for them to concert so complicated a design, and still more difficult for them to execute it; while each seeks a pretext to free himself of the trouble and expense, and would lay the whole burden on others.- David Hume
LESSON 32: “How selfish so ever man may be supposed, there are evidently some principles in his nature, which interest him in the fortune of others, and render their happiness necessary to him, though he derives nothing from it, except the pleasure of seeing it.”
― Adam Smith
LESSON 33: “That which is despicable to you, do not do to your fellow, this is the whole Torah, and the rest is commentary, go and learn it."- Rabbi Hillel
LESSON 34: “Logic and mathematics are nothing but specialized linguistic structures”. -Jean Piaget
LESSON 35: “Reasoning draws a conclusion, but does not make the conclusion certain, unless the mind discovers it by the path of experience”. - Roger Bacon
LESSON 36: “There's a mighty big difference between good, sound reasons and reasons that sound good.” -Burton Hillis
LESSON 37: “Philosophy is a battle against the bewitchment of our intelligence by means of language.” -Ludwig Wittgenstein
- LESSON 38: “Bad reasoning as well as good reasoning is possible; and this fact is the foundation of the practical side of logic.” -Charles Sanders Pierce
LESSON 39: “Frustra fit per plura, quod fieri potest per pauciora.” (It is vain to do with more what can be done with less.) -William of Occam
LESSON 40: “He who establishes his argument by noise and command shows that his reason is weak”. -Michel de Montaigne
LESSON 41: “Belief is a wise wager. Granted that faith cannot be proved, what harm will come to you if you gamble on its truth and it proves false? If you gain, you gain all; if you lose, you lose nothing. Wager, then, without hesitation, that He exists.”- Blaise Pascal
LESSON 42: "The moment we admit that our beliefs are attempts to represent states of the world, we see that they must stand in right relation to the world to be valid." --Sam Harris
LESSON 43: “That which can be asserted without evidence, can be dismissed without evidence."- Christopher Hitchens
- LESSON 44: "This great question of predestination and free will, of free moral agency and accountability, and being saved by the grace of God, and damned for the glory of God, have occupied the mind of what we call the civilized world for many centuries.”- Robert Ingersoll
LESSON 45: “At the touch of love everyone becomes a poet.”- Plato
LESSON 46: “A well-developed sense of humor is the pole that adds balance to your steps as you walk the tightrope of life”. -William Arthur Ward
LESSON 47: “The man who makes everything that leads to happiness depends upon himself, and not upon other men, has adopted the very best plan for living happily" — Plato
- LESSON 48: “A man who dares to waste one hour of time has not discovered the value of life.” ― Charles Darwin
LESSON 49: “For life and death are one, even as the river and the sea are one”. - Khalil Gibran
LESSON 50: “I don't believe people are looking for the meaning of life as much as they are looking for the experience of being alive”- Joseph Campbell
KNOW THYSELF: “The most difficult thing in life is to know yourself”. Thales of Miletus
- Philosophical Songs/Videos of the Day
Philosophical Songs/Videos of the Day
LESSON 3: No song/video today