## Topic outline

- General
### General

#### Physics A Final Review Physics B Final Review

- Helpful General Links
### Helpful General Links

Remember that you are not the only one studying physics and occasionally getting confused! The good news is that there are thousands of resources on the internet designed to help you understand everything we cover.

Great frame by frame, high speed high resolution videos, with measurement scales.

USE THE DMV PLAYER to do physics labs. You can easily go frame by frame, forward and reverse.

- Chapter 1: The Science of Physics; Measurement and Math
### Chapter 1: The Science of Physics; Measurement and Math

Important Concepts:- Scientific Method
- Metric Units and Prefixes
- Scientific Notation
- Graphing and Analyzing Data
- Accuracy (correctness) vs. Precision (exactness)
- Dimensional Analysis (checking units)

Press "New Number". Keep practicing until you get 10 in a row!

Try the quiz. Check your answers. Look up things that confuse you. Ask your teacher for help.

Significant Digits - Remember that the digits you record are limited to what you actually measure, with the last digit being the one you estimated.

- Ch.2.1: Motion and Graphs
### Ch.2.1: Motion and Graphs

How do we measure position? Compared to what?**Position, Displacement, Speed, and Velocity**What measurements have just a size, as opposed to size and direction?

How do we show the motion of an object with different types of graphs?

(Be able to produce either a velocity vs time graph or a position vs time graph when given the other one.)

**Basics: Frame of Reference, Position, Distance and Displacement****Position vs. Time Graphs; Velocity**

- Ch 2.2, 2.3 Acceleration, Kinematics, and Free fall
### Ch 2.2, 2.3 Acceleration, Kinematics, and Free fall

Acceleration and Kinematics Equations

How do we use kinematics equations to calculate one value when given other values?

Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. a = (v_{f}-v_{i})/t

You can rearrange this definition to get v_{f}= v_{i}+ at

Using the fact that area under the v vs. t curve equals displacement, you should be able to derive d = v_{i}t + .5at^{2}

From the first two equations, substituting to eliminate t, 2ad = v_{f}^{2}- v_{i}^{2}Free fall is the motion of objects which have no forces on it other than gravity acting on them.

These objects move vertically, changing velocity at the acceleration of gravity, or if they are also moving sideways, follow parabolic trajectories.

Try these! Look at solutions at bottom of page!

- Ch 3.1: Vectors and Components
### Ch 3.1: Vectors and Components

Remember that a vector is just a measurement that has both size ("magnitude") and direction. Mass does not have direction, so it is a

*scalar*. Force does have a direction (for example, 34 N, pushing east), so it is a vector.Vectors which point diagonally (according to whatever grid you are using) are complicated to add or subtract. Therefore, we break the vectors into components which follow the grid axes. Just as a point on a graph has x and y components, a vector which points diagonally down and right has a rightwardcomponent and a downwardcomponent.

We use trigonometry functions sine, cosine, and tangent to calculate the size of the components.

Vector Basics

Watch these and take notes. Use your calculator to actually do the math - don't just watch!

Vector Components, Addition, and Subtraction

- Ch 3.4: Relative Motion
### Ch 3.4: Relative Motion

All motion is relative. You might be "at rest" relative to the room around you, but moving at 800 miles per hour relative to the center of the planet as we go all the way the earth each day. When you are riding in a train and flip a coin, you see it go straight up and down, but someone standing on the ground sees the coin also flying sideways at 50 miles per hour.

Important concepts:

The velocity of A relative to B ("v_{A-B}") is the speed and direction of A, as seen by B.

This is equal to the difference in their velocities; v_{A-B}= v_{A}- v_{B}_{}If an plane is moving through air that is also moving, relative to the earth, then the plane's velocity relative to the ground equals its velocity relative to the air, plus the air's velocity relative to the ground. In other words, a plane pointed north, flying in wind blowing to the west, actually travels northwest. - Ch 3.3: Motion in Two Dimensions; Projectiles
### Ch 3.3: Motion in Two Dimensions; Projectiles

Use those vector components!

Projectile Problems: Gravity accelerates in the vertical direction, not the horizontal. Solve x and y equations separately, connected only by time.

No multiple choice.

Answers on second page.

- Ch. 4: Forces and Newton's Laws of Motion
### Ch. 4: Forces and Newton's Laws of Motion

Any changes in motion are caused by forces.

__Forces and Free Body Diagrams__Newton's Laws

An obeject at rest remains at rest, even if you might not expect it to.

__Friction__Set initial conditions (angle, mu, initial velocity) and try to predict acceleration, and displacement at a certain time.

- Ch.5 - Work, Energy, and Power
### Ch.5 - Work, Energy, and Power

Work, Energy, and Power

Big concepts: Work is a change in energy. If you give something more energy, you have done positive work.

Energy is converted from one form to another as anything happens. For example, as a ball falls through the air, gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy (as it speeds up) and heat energy (due to friction with the air).

Energy is

__conserved__, whether in the flight of a projectile, the current running through a light bulb, or the decay of an atom.Using energy conservation laws (

**Total energy at start = Total energy at finish**) can make it much easier to solve many problems in mechanics.Power is not the amount of energy transferred, it is

__the rate__at which energy is transferred. An small engine with little horsepower can still do the work to get your car up a hill, but it will take longer, since it can only generate a small amount of energy per second.**Conservation of Energy - Conversion between Types**

- Ch 6 - Momentum
### Ch 6 - Momentum

Momentum and Impulse

Momentum equals mass times velocity. (This is linear momentum, as opposed to rotational momentum, which is a little more complicated.) When two objects collide or interact, momentum is transferred from one to the other. THE TOTAL MOMENTUM REMAINS CONSTANT BEFORE AND AFTER THE COLLISION.

Impulse equals force times the amount of time the force is applied. The impulse is also equal to the amount of change in momentum. (Push harder on an object, for a longer time, and you will change its velocity more.)

- Ch 7.1 - Circular MotionThis topic
### Ch 7.1 - Circular Motion

Circular Motion

Distinguish between

__tangential__acceleration (stepping on gas or brakes) which changes the*magnitude*of velocity, versus__radial__acceleration (turning the wheel) which changes the*direction*or velocity. Radial acceleration is__towards the center__of the circle: Latin translation: centripetal. - Ch 7.2 - Gravity and Kepler's Laws
### Ch 7.2 - Gravity and Kepler's Laws

Universal Gravitation

Students should understand the origins and uses of Kepler's Laws and Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation. These laws can be used to calculate the speed and orbital period of planets and other satellites. Students should also be able to explain the concept of weightlessness, and the general concepts of Einstein's Theory of Gravity.

- Simple Harmonic Motion and Pendulums - 16
### Simple Harmonic Motion and Pendulums - 16

Simple Harmonic Motion

Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is the sinusoidal motion caused when the restoring force is proportional to displacement, but in the opposite direction. In other words, when you move something one way, a force tries to push it back the other way. Common examples include pendulums, and masses oscillating on springs.

Stationary graphs of Simple Harmonic Motion.

In the graph below, the blue curve represents the position x of an object moving back and forth in SHM. Note that position vs. time is in the shape of a sine curve.

The red and green graphs represent the velocity and acceleration of the object. Note that velocity is 90 degrees out of phase with position, and acceleration is 180 degrees out of phase. In other words, when the displacement reaches zero, the speed is at a maximum, and vice versa. Meanwhile, the displacement and acceleration reach maximum at the same times, but they are opposite signs (opposite directions.) Think about a real pendulum or mass on a spring and make sense of this graph.

- Topic 17
### Topic 17

Mechanical Waves and Sound

**Main Questions:**What are waves and how do they propagate?

How are speed, frequency, period, and wavelength related?

How do waves interfere to produce standing waves and beats?

**Wave Basics**Play with the controls. You can use the mouse to make waves, or you can switch the mouse so it makes walls. Watch the waves reflect off walls or diffract around obstacles.

**Interference and Superposition**When two waves pass through the same point at the same time, the resultant wave will be the sum of the two waves. The waves pass through each other; they do not bounce off each other or disappear.

**Standing Waves and Resonance**You will need to watch the demonstrated procedure, and then write your own procedure, with numbered steps, in your lab report.

**Sound**Note how each successive diagram zooms in on tiny area.

**Interference of Sound Waves: Beats**Works better if speakers are right next to each other. Start both frequencies at 300 Hz. Hit Enter after you adjust numbers. Adjust phase and frequency.

**Review**Choose tube "one side open" (other side closed) to simulate our speed of sound lab that we do in class. Note where the motion nodes and antinodes occur as you increase the harmonics (vibrational modes).

- Electromagnetic Waves and the Behavior of Light
### Electromagnetic Waves and the Behavior of Light

Electromagnetic waves have some of the same properties as mechanical waves, such as speed, frequency, and wavelength. They often behave differently in real life, though, because they have MUCH higher speeds and an enormous range of wavelengths, from smaller than an atom to longer than a mile.

**Basics - Definition, Speed, Frequencies - remember that EM waves are still waves.****Freq = #waves/second****Wave speed = freq x wavelength****Same basic calculations and principles here!!!!****Interference and Wave-Particle Duality****What are Electromagnetic Waves?****Color and Human Vision****Reflection and Mirrors****Polarization**

- Refraction and Lenses
### Refraction and Lenses

Note how the light behaves as it enters and exits the glass prism. What happens to the frequency, wavelength, and speed as it exits the glass? Which waves get bent more?

Similar to our textbook - updated and prettier!

**Index of Refraction**and**Snell's Law**Students need a protractor and scientific calculator.

Show your work for credit.

**Dispersion, Rainbows, and Chromatic Aberration****Lenses and Image Formation**Try these. You have to use the coordinates of the mouse to do the measurements. Assume all lengths are in centimeters.

**The Human Eye and Vision Correction****Optics Review**

- Topic 20
### Topic 20

Scattering, Interference, and Diffraction of Light

- Topic 21
### Topic 21

Static Electricity, Forces, and Fields

Remember that opposites attract? In this chapter, you will calculate exactly how much they attract (and likes repel) and learn how to move charges around to create positive and negative objects.

Funny, accurate, colorful, thorough.

Extremely useful explanations, diagrams, and quizzes to see if you understand the concepts. Use this resource!

- Topic 22
### Topic 22

Current Electricity and Circuits

There is a great website called All About Circuits that has a free textbook, problems ranging from simple to very challenging, and explanations for everything.

Try it out!**Resistance, Voltage, and Current****Electric Power and Energy Usage**

- Topic 23
### Topic 23

Magnetic Fields and Forces - Topic 24
### Topic 24

Electromagnetic Induction and EM Fields

- Physics Project Ideas
### Physics Project Ideas

Physics Projects are designed to make students extend their knowledge past the standard curriculum in one topic.

Students will conduct an experiment or measure data. They will summarize the results, and demonstrate their knowledge of the topic, in a classroom or electronic presentation (video, PowerPoint or other format).

*Some Suggestions for Individual Physics Projects:*Exploratorium Website - Science Snacks

- Topic 27
### Topic 27

Physics B Final Review